How does the Panel Decide if a Signal is Alarm or Supervisory?
-- The answer to the question of How does the system recognize is in the programming of the fire alarm system. That's at least for the Fire Alarm, Supervisory Alarm, and Monitor Activations. Troubles are hard-wired into the system - programming won't change anything about displaying a trouble. A fire alarm system doesn't really decide anything; a fire alarm system is told what to do through the program that is implanted into the system...Read More
What is an Area of Refuge?
-- You hear the message "Use the Stairs, "you see the sign "In case of fire, don't take the elevator." To get out of the building from the higher floors, when the building is on fire, the stairs ... Read More
How are alarms hardwired to field equipment in a typical process plant?
-- I am a Process Safety Engineer but I am trying to understand alarms representation on a P & ID. I am sorry if this is not your area of expertise. Please, permit me to ask the following questions: 1. How are alarms hardwired to field equipment in a typical process plant like refinery, for example a high-pressure alarm monitoring pressure on a reactor or vessel? 2. How is the alarm hardwired such that the operator in the field as well as in the control room will be alerted? 3. Can an alarm be a field device that is not accessible to the operator in the control room? . . . Read More
Essential Fire Safety Tips For Landlords
-- On average, seven people die each day in U.S. home fires, the National Fire Protection Association reveals. As a property manager or landlord, keeping your tenants and property safe from fire is one of the most important responsibilities you have. Unattended ovens or cook-tops, smoking, portable space heaters, and electrical faults are the most common causes of house fires. Not only do property fires cause thousands of . . .Read More
How Clutter Can Increase Your Home Fire Risk
-- Official lists of the most common household fire risks include unattended cooking equipment, heating, broken electrical equipment, flammable liquids and even Christmas trees, but one aspect that can worsen all these risks and create a fire of its own, is clutter! NBC reports that one in four Americans has a clutter problem and 55% of those surveyed said it causes major stress. By keeping homes tidy, families can reduce their fire risk, but also reduce the frequency of falls and trips and the mental anguish of constantly being exposed to untidiness. . .Read More
How To Keep Seniors Safe From Fires
-- Did you know that closing your bedroom door at night could save your life? Studies show that, in house fires, carbon monoxide levels are ten times higher in rooms with an ... Read More
How Long can the Wire be to the Input Module?
-- The NFPA Code does not approve the exact wiring of the Initiating Device Circuit -IDC-. They also don't forbid any exact wiring of the IDC. They write legal code that can be used by governments; they don't design anything, including wiring for the IDC...Read More
Do we need horns and strobes in a building shell?
-- The NFPA Code is interpreted differently by different people, but to be a complete fire alarm system, the system must detect fire (the waterflow switch on the sprinkler system) and warn people of the fire (horns and strobes). This detect and warn includes the shell area because the shell area can be occupied... Read More
How do You Know if a Fire Alarm is Loud Enough?
-- I have been trying to obtain information pertaining to new audio / visual sound systems installed in our classrooms and what Fire Safety code -if any- mandates a requirement that the sound become shunted during an activated fire alarm. I have heard mixed statements but haven't been able to acquire any certain clarity...Read More
Do I Have to Use Pull Station Glass Rods in a Daycare?
-- If the glass rod or plastic rod accidently broke, it might not be noticed right away. The broken pieces of rods would sit on the floor until they were vacuumed up. Personally, I wouldn't count on the vacuum cleaner finding the broken pieces before a crawling child got there to put the pieces in the mouth...Read More
Is this New Control Panel Compatible with the Old System?
-- A compatible device is a device that will work, reliably. If the device is not compatible, the device might work most of the time, some of the time, or none of the time. The non-compatible device could also randomly go into false alarm. Non-compatible means that when the device is depended on to work, no one really knows exactly what it will do...Read More
Do the Lights have to Turn On if the FACP is in Trouble?
-- The National Fire Protection Association -NFPA- isn't a rule making authority, the NFPA is a non-profit publishing house. They gather people together to write guidelines showing the minimum needed to provide good fire protection, and then print some books... Read More
Do We Have to Get a Permit to Replace a Power Supply?
--Is it customary for a fire department to require a fire alarm modification permit to replace a remote power supply? We are replacing only one of the five existing with the exact same make and model. They tried to say - The fire alarm booster is ... Read More
Should a Hospital be Staged EVAC?
-- When there's an alarm, I believe that most of the hospital employees act as if the fire evacuation system is a -Defend-In-Place- system. For a hospital, rather than getting everyone out of the building if there's a fire, the patients are told to get behind a closed fire door. The alarm sounds off, though, as a -Staged Evacuation- system. With staged evacuation, when there's a fire, rather that totally evacuate...Read More
Is the Fire Alarm Sounder Compliant?
-- In a fire alarm system, the term -Compliant- is a legal term meaning -It has been tested by a third-party, nationally known testing laboratory like UL, ULC, CE, CCC, FM, etc., and found to work in a particular fire alarm system.- The testing laboratory, if they have found it to work as a system then they will have -listed- as -Compliant- because they work together...Read More
Is a Whole Studio Apartment Considered a Sleeping Area?
-- The idea of having a low frequency horn in a sleeping area is to wake up a person, even an older or hard of hearing person, when there's a fire. In a Live-Work Studio, the sleeping area is less well defined than in a regular one- or two-bedroom apartment. From the tenant's point of view, the bed could be out in the open area of the Studio...Read More
Is the NFPA Code a List of Laws?
-- The reference to the NFPA 72 showing a List of Laws is not a reference to the NFPA as a rulemaking authority -they definitely are not-, the reference to the NFPA 72 showing a List of Laws is a...Read More
Does the NFPA Code Require Panel Replacement?
-- On the one hand, the NFPA publishes books that by themselves don't have any government rule-making authority. On the other hand, the books published by the NFPA are about the best description of how to protect from fires...Read More
What do they mean as Pathway on the Record of Completion?
-- The NFPA has now boiled down all the different Styles and Classes of the various signal pathways to a total of seven classifications. These classifications don't really show how to wire anything, these classes show how the building wide fire alarm system is going to work when something goes wrong with the alarm's communication routes. The pathways are now classified as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, Class N, and Class X...Read More
Does a Beam Detector Power Supply have to be Listed?
-- The NFPA Code does not list the requirements for a power supply on a beam detector, as such. However, the beam detector is a fire alarm system smoke detector. Because it is a fire alarm device, it is required to continue operating for as long as the fire alarm system is operating. To keep the beam detector working, the power supply...Read More
Does an Extra Monitoring Method Require a Permit?
-- Because these are minimum requirements, fire alarm systems can always be made better. Any Authority Having Jurisdiction -AHJ- can require more than the NFPA has shown in the legal code; sometimes the AHJ can just allow more than the NFPA has in the legal code. The NFPA itself talks about who qualifies as an AHJ...Read More
Should Security Guards Try to Put Out a Fire?
-- My personal suggestion to the security guards (you may wish to put this in their emergency response procedure book) is that if the alarms sound off, 1. Call the emergency response personnel right away. That starts the fire fighting process...Read More
Are T-Taps Allowed on a Class A SLC System?
-- With either Class A or Class B, if for any reason a device can't send or receive signals from the panel, the panel will show a trouble. Even if all devices communicate, a failure of the wiring also shows a trouble on the panel. Class B, when a wire breaks or comes loose, any devices still connected to the panel can communicate, but any devices past the break or loose connection can't communicate...Read More
How can I Learn and Understand the NFPA 72 Code Book?
-- Yes, the code needs to be complied with, but it is written so that lawyers, lawmakers, and those enforcing laws can understand it. The NFPA Code becomes easy to understand when you know what the intent of the Code is and some of the thought of the writers of the Code. That information is included in the NFPA's Handbook... Read More
What Does Listed Mean?
-- The NFPA -National Fire Protection Association, a non-profit publisher- does not List anything. . . at all. The word Listed can be considered a legal term, with legal definitions. However, to understand what Listed really means, we have to look at what Listed does...Read More
What does SIL (Safety Integrity System) mean?
-- SIL -Safety Integrity System- is a confidence rating system. In some ways, it's similar in fire alarm systems to the classification system for signal pathways through the building -like Class A, Class B, C, D, E, N, X-. The SIL number is a measure of...Read More
The NFPA's Class of the Path
-- As a life-safety system, a fire alarm system detects fire and lets people know about the fire. That, though, is what the input and output devices do. Usually the fire alarm system includes with the input and output devices some sort of control system. This is the panel where the signals from ... Read More
Just Who Is the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)?
-- A.3.2.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction -AHJ-. The phrase authority having jurisdiction, or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and approval agencies vary, as do their responsibilities. Where public safety is primary, the authority having jurisdiction . . . Read More