After working with fire alarm systems for years, I have learned that the alarms in the building can be set off by anything I do. Just in case I set off the fire alarm system, I never touch the system for any reason without first calling the monitoring company. That way they don't dispatch the fire department while I'm working on the fire alarm system.
I have also learned that no matter what I have done to prevent the alarms from sounding off, once in a great while they sound off anyway. You can expect a very small chance of sounding off the fire alarm system in the building, but if the monitoring company has put the system on "test" or "no action", at least the fire department won't be coming.
After replacing the batteries, whether or not anything has to be reset depends on so many things that all I can say is check everything to make sure the fire alarm system is normal afterwards.